Capra and Luisis, op cit, Chapter 4 - Bibliography

Appendices - Systems: an overview - Development of systems thinking

Peter Checkland, Systems Thinking, Systems Practice, John Wiley, 1981 - Bibliography

Appendices - Systems: an overview - Human systems

Checkland op cit, section Emergence and Heirarchy p75 - Bibliography

Appendices - Systems: an overview - Development of systems thinking

A full discussion of this idea referencing Ptolemy, Kant, Kuhn, Koestler, and Popper as well as modern historical examples of the power of Weltanschauung from WW2 and the Cold War

Peter Checkland, Systems Thinking, Systems Practice, John Wiley, 1981 - Bibliography

Appendices - Systems: an overview - Human systems

Paul Davies, The Goldilocks Enigma, Penguin, 2006 - Bibliography

Appendices - Systems: an overview - Human Systems

James Lovelock, Gaia, A NEw Looks at Life on Earth, Oxford 2000 - Bibliography

Appendices - Systems: an overview - Human Systems

As opposed to the quip by Oscar Wilde that the trouble with socialism is that it takes up too many evenings

Too good to pass up, albeit not confirmed

Appendices - Systems: an overview - Development of systems thinking


In going through that process an new set of hypotheses emerged directly from the model (See Below). These are the statements embedded in the relationships between the subject areas depicted can be read as sentences.

Appendices - Method and approach - Developing a vision

The word competition does not help since it has several definitions, the evolutionary one “in a community of plants or animals the simultaneous demand for the same limited resources…by 2 or more organisms or species” (Chambers) becomes overlaid with human interpretation we anthropomorphise, we see intent where there is none. A lot of simple corporate piracy is tolerated because being put out of work is just down to the fact they you were not fit to succeed

Then there is the whole thing about the "selfish" gene...

Appendices - Method and approach

Christianity believes that human beings are redeemable and those sects that believe in being born again certainly think that humans can change albeit by the direct intervention of a deity. Determinists who look at nature as red in tooth and claw of course justify the competition within our culture, between societies and within economics as an inevitable analogue of the natural world. The case I make is that although part of the animal kingdom, constrained by both evolution and genetics, we have some control because we can shape our culture as well as being shaped by it.

Appendices - Systems: an overview - Development of systems thinking

Strictly that should be myths. It is possible to view the fall, and expulsion from the garden of Eden is a myth linked to what used to be called the Neolithic Revolution but is now seen as a gradual and more tentative process. When we took up agriculture, a life of toil, and left behind the freedom of hunter gathering i.e. being in the garden. James C Scott, Against the Grain - covers this briefly in his introduction - Bibliography

See also; Russian archaeology at which looks at the process including "Third, it is argued that some hunter-gatherers did not adopt agriculture owing to their values, beliefs and institutions"

The Transition Between Hunting and Gathering and the Specialized Husbandry of Resources: A Socio-ecological Approach, Robert Layton, Robert Foley, Elizabeth Williams, Claudia Chang, Tim Ingold, Deborah I. Olszewski, Michael Rosenberg, M. Steven Shackley, Eric A. Smith and Marek Zvelebil, Current Anthropology Vol. 32, No. 3 (Jun., 1991), pp. 255-274, is a wide ranging article, including "cases of mixed economies and reversions to hunting and gathering by people who previously practiced herding and cultivation"

Appendices - Systems; An Overview - Human Systems

Modelling is also used in general systems analysis, often a model is used to refer to a mathematical model or even a spreadsheet – this is not the way in which I use it here.

Appendices - Method and approach - Human Activity Model

Donella Meadows, Places to intervene in a system

See also Meadows - Thinking in Systems a Primer - Bibliography

Appendices - Systems; An Overview - Change

This is a pretty big simplification but it serves to get over the essential points about systems

Appendices - Systems: an overview

The bio-sphere itself is a component in an wider system, there are interactions between the earth (geological processes) and with space (stellar processes).

Appendices - Systems, an overview - Human systems

It may be around 4° which is why the pressure is on to limit change to 2° or less

See for example (there is a lot of stuff out there)

Appendices - Systems; an overview - Human systems

The point here is that the bio-sphere is a systems (hypothesised as Gaia) but it is nevertheless possible to isolate its sub-systems, one of which is the carbon cycle already mentioned) and another is the water cycle see for example Of course there are connections between them but they can be isolated for study. In business systems analysis a technique for finding boundaries is to look for the smaller numbers of interactions but I an unsure if this would directly or simply transfer to natural systems.

Appendices - Systems: an overview - Boundaries

Joseph Schumpeter, History of Economic Analysis, 1954, quoted in Kate Raworth, Doughnut Economics, Penguin, ISBN 978-1-84794-137-4 - Bibliography

Appendices - Method and approach - Values and Assumptions